सनातन धर्म भूमिका

Meaning of "Duryodhana"







In General

Duryodhana was the prince and king of Kuru kingdom for some duration. The eldest and greatest of the Kauravas and the main rival hero of the Mahabharata; the. Duryodhana was a staunch materialist and believed that everything can be managed with money and power. Pandavas had an able mother Kunti and many sympathizers like Bhishma and Vidura in the palace. Ministers, Sabha, samithi and common people loved and respected Pandavas for their good qualities. Drithrashra was born blind and Gandhari accepted blindness, so there was nobody to lead Kauravas to behave well. Pandavas always outsmart Kauravas in every respect and this prompted Duryodhana’s hatred towards them. He always attracted bad people like Shakuni, Purochana and a host of kings like Sisupala, Jarasandha, Kalayavana. He accepted brave people like Karna and Aswathma in his company only to challenge Pandavas.

Geneology: Puru - Janamejaya - Pracinva- Pravira - Namasyu - Vltabhaya - Sundu - Bahuvidha - Samyati - Rahovadi - Raudrasva - Matinara - Santurodha- Dusyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Suhota -Gala-Gardda -Suketu-Brhatksetra-Hasti - Ajamidha - Rksa – Samvarana - Kuru- Jahnu-Suratha-Viduratha - Sarvabhauma- Jayatsena-Ravyaya-Bhavuka-Cakroddhata - Devatithi - Rksa - Bhima-Pratipa-Santanu- Vijithravirya – Dritharashtra – Duryodhana


When Drona demanded to capture Drupatha as a gurudakshina, Duryodhana and his company went first but got defeated. But Arjuna single handedly captured Drupatha and brought him before the Guru. This incidence was enough for Duryodhana to come to the conclusion that he cannot defeat pandavas in fair game so he always thought of destroying them with some or other tricks.

Dhrtarastra born blind married Gandhari. Hungry and thirsty, Vyasa once came to Dhrtarastra's palace where Gandharl treated him sumptuously, and he blessed her to have hundred sons by her husband. Subsequently, Gandhari conceived, but even after two years she did not deliver. Grief-stricken at this she got herself aborted in secret as the result of which she 'delivered' a mass of flesh, and hearing about it Vyasa visited her. As instructed by him hundred pots were filled with ghee, and the mass of flesh was sprayed with cold water as a result of which it got divided into hundred pieces, each the size of a thumb. Also a smaller piece of flesh remained. Those pieces of flesh were deposited in the pots filled with ghee and the pots kept in a secret place. Vyasa departed for the Himalayas for tapas. In course of time the pots burst open one by one and from each pot emerged a boy. From the 101st pot a girl was born. Eldest among the boys was named Duryodhana, and the girl called Dussala.

Duryodhana, at the time of his birth cried in the voice of an ass on hearing which the asses kept in their shed also cried. Also, such evil omens as the jackal howling, birds like crows, vultures etc. crying and storms breaking out were witnessed on the occasion.

Bhima being in every way a giant, the Kauravas had often to suffer at his hands. To collect all the hundred Kaurava brothers together and throw them away in one lump to push them to the ground, to suffocate them by holding their heads under water etc these were some of the childish pranks played by Bhima on the Kauravas. The constant repetition of such pranks and mischief on the part of Bhima rendered him an object of hatred for the Kauravas among whom the common conviction grew that it was essential to put an end to Bhlma's life for their safety, nay even their very existence. One day, the Kauravas, with the object of doing away with Bhima, escorted the Pandavas to Pramanakoti on the banks of the Ganga for water sports. There all of them ate sumptuous meals and took various drinks. But, Duryodhana had secretly mixed Kalakuta poison in the food of Bhima. After taking meals they began playing water-sports. After the sports were over they returned to their tents and slept. Owing to the effects of the poison and the overexertion during the day Bhima slept stone dead. While all were asleep during the night Duryodhana bound the hands and legs of Bhima with cords and threw him into the depths of the Ganga. Bhima who was still unconscious sank down to the very bottom of the river where the denizens of nagaloka saw him and the nagas bit him in anger. The poison of the nagas neutralised the effects of Kalakuta poison in Bhima, though their bite could not make even a scratch on his skin. Freed thus from the effects of poison Bhima shook himself up from sleep and drove off the nagas. Bhima returned unharmed and with greater strength.

The Kauravas and the Pandavas learnt the use of weapons of war at the feet of Dronacarya, and when the studies were over arrangements were made for a rehearsal, and at the rehearsal Bhima and Duryodhana were the first to clash with each other. When the encounter reached its climax both of them pointed the club at each other. But, Asvatthama intervened and pacified them. Next Karna entered the stage for a trial of strength with Arjuna, and at once arose from the Pandava side questions about Karna's nobility and aristocracy of birth etc. Karna stood there stunned, not knowing what to say or how to repel the attack. Then it was Duryodhana who rose up to announce that he was, that very moment, crowning Karna, the King of Anga. This ended the scene.

When Yudhisthira was declared as the apparent heir of the kingdom, Drithrashtra advised Pandavas to enjoy life Varnavat and live there with their mother. Duryodhana played he was a beneficiary of Pandavas and secretly built a Lac palace at Varnavat to burn Pandavas alive there. Pandavas smelled the evil design of Duryodhana and escaped from the trap with the help of Vidura. Everybody thought Pandavas are dead. But after few years Pandavas again appeared in the public with their newly wedded common wife Panchali. Duryodhana in his cunning mind thought a truce at this moment is the best thing to do, and so he invited them to Hastinapura.

After the Rajasuya Yajna of Pandavas at Indraprastha the Kauravas wanted to have a look at the palace and in the course of surveying it they placed themselves in ridiculous situations due to visual illusions. Taking the bright floors of glass for watery tanks they pulled up their clothing and measured with caution every foot of theirs. Then they mistook actual pools for floor and fell into them and got wet. At the consequent discomfiture of the Kauravas Bhima clapped his hands and roared with laughter. Draupadi hid her face with hands and laughed. Kauravas felt very bad and decided to revenge.

Duryodhana now came to the decision either to defeat the Pandavas once for all or to commit suicide by taking poison. He held secret consultations on the topic with Sakuni whose efforts at first to pacify him (Duryodhana) failed. Ultimately Sakuni, an expert in the game of dice, advised Duryodhana to invite Dharmaputra to a game, assuring him that the rest he would take care of. Dharmaputra, in fact, did not like the game, but he succumbed to the eloquence and persuasive powers of Sakuni and at last agreed to play. Many Kings lined up to watch the game. First gems were staked, and Duryodhana won the game. Then 1 000 golden niskas' and treasuries were offered to the winner. Duryodhana won that game also. Next chariot with horses and next to that 1000 maid-servants were staked and Duiyodhana won those games too. 1 000 horses, 1 000 golden chariots with their horses, the horse decorated with gold presented by Citraratha to Arjuna, 6000 soldiers with their arms and armaments these formed the next successive bets, and each game Dharmaputra lost. The next bet was 400 copper vessels each filled with pure gold, and Duryodhana won that game also. And, now Vidura tried to dissuade Yudhisthira from playing the game; but neither he nor Duryodhana heeded the advice. And,Duryodhana by foul play snatched from Dharmaputra all his wealth, his kingdom and his brothers. Now, Pancall alone remained, and Dharmaputra bet her too and played the last game and lost. Panchali was striped in the court and that is followed by very tense situation. At last Dritharastra retuned all the lost item pledged by Yudhisthira and sent them back to Indraprastha

Second game and exile in the forest. Duryodhana and others did not appreciate the intervention of their father. He again conspired with Sakuni and it was decided to challenge Dharmaputra to one more game. The conditions to be stipulated were that the vanquished in the game should stay in exile for twelve years in the forest and live incognito during the thirteenth year, and if found out and recognised during this period the whole process of exile and life incognito would have to be repeated. Duryodhana and Sukuni approached Dhrtarastra and said to him thus: "Dear father, the desire for revenge at their defeat in the game of dice gnaws at the Pandavas' heart like poison. Also, they will never forget our having dragged Draupadi by her hair. When a suitable occasion arises they will take revenge on the whole lot of us. Therefore, we want to challenge Dharmaputra to a final game of dice, the condition being that he who gets defeated should go in exile into the forest for twelve years and then to live incognito for one year. If we get defeated we will simply carry out the condition on our part. This request of Duryodhana appealed to his father, who invited Dharmaputra once again for a game of dice. Dharmaputra accepted the invitation, in fact, in spite of himself. This time too Duryodhana won the stake and the Pandavas set out to the forest.

Duryodhana refused to give the Pandavas, even after their return from twelve years' exile in forest and one year's life incognito, even 'as much land as would hold a pin', and war became inevitable. The Pandavas and Kauravas fought the Great War which lasted for eighteen days on the field of Kuruksetra.

Durodhana was killed in the war by Bhima in violation of rules of war.

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