सनातन धर्म भूमिका

Meaning of "Vivaha"







In General

Life is meant for achieving four purusharthas, namely dharma, artha, kama and moksha. Vivaha or marriage is one of the Samskara, an essential sacred act to lead a perfect life.

Eight kinds of marriage. (1) Brahma (2) Daiva (3) Arsa (4) Prajapatya (5) Gandharva (6) Asura (7) Raksasa (8) Paisaca.

Brahma is the one where the father gives her daughter with sacred water to a bachelor without accepting anything in return. When the father gives his daughter to the priest at the time of a yaga it is called Daiva. It is Arsa if the father gives the daughter and gets in return a cow or bullock. When the father gives the daughter with her blessings it is Prajapatya. The marriage between two lovers is Gandharva. It is Asura when the male takes his mate by force and it is Paisacika (most cruel and mean) when the girl is taken as his wife without her will and wish or when she is in a state of unconsciousness.

The main events in Hindu marriage ceremony are:

Vighneswara Pooja : To have blessing of lord and to remove obstacles

Vara Pooja : The Bridegroom and his party is invited with respect

Madhu Parka : the bride’s parents offer the sweets for the bridegroom to eat.

Pratisara Bandha a sacred turmeric color thread is tied to Bridegroom’s right hand by his father and then the Bridegroom ties to the left hand of the Bride. This signifies the blessed determination to begin the ceremonies.

Kashiyatra : The Bridegroom expresses interest in visiting the holy place of Kashi. At this time, the Bride’s father offers his daughter and asks the Bridegroom to take her with him so that they can advance in life together.

Sambandha Malike : The Bridegroom agreeing to the offer of Bride’s father comes back to the marriage hall. At this coming back, the Bride and Bridegroom exchanges garlands

Kanya daana : The Bride’s father gives his daughter to the Bridegroom. Tthe bridegroom promises the Bride’s father that he will not transgress the guidelines of dharma , artha and kama.

Mangalya Dharana : A sacred turmeric colored thread with a religious pendent is tied by the Bridegroom around the neck of Bride. This tying of thread signifies the long term bonding of married life.

Panigrahana : The Bridegroom holds the right hand of the Bride and with sacred fire as witness. The cloths of the bride and bridegroom are also tied.

Saptapadi : Here, the Bridegroom brings the Bride and asks her to keep her right foot on seven heaps (one at a time) of rice. At each step, a mantra is recited. The seven mantras mean: May Lord Vishnu guide and help provide food. May Lord Vishnu guide and help provide strength. May Lord Vishnu guide and help provide energy to do noble actions. May Lord Vishnu guide and help provide happiness in life. May Lord Vishnu guide and help provide wealth. May Lord Vishnu guide and help provide favorable environment. May Lord Vishnu guide and help provide sacred services (yajnas). After these seven steps, the Bridegroom makes assertions to the Bride, such as “you are my friend. We will always be friends to each other. May we be united together in thoughts, speech and actions. I represent heaven, you represent earth. I represent meaning, you represent speech. We will understand each other and be happy together”

Pradhana Homa: In this homa, through the sacred fire, the Bridegroom and Bride offer various sacred materials to divinities seeking their blessings.

Ashmarohana : The Bridegroom asks the Bride to keep her right foot on a stone and recites a mantra that means “ we need to be strong like this stone to face challenges and difficulties that we encounter in our life “

Lajahoma : In this homa, the Bride’s brother offers puffed rice to the sacred fire. This is to wish good health and life for the Bridegroom. Then the Bridegroom and Bride go clockwise around the sacred fire.

Showing the Arundhati Star: In this step, the Bride groom shows the Arundhati star to bride with the prayer that she be blessed to become like Arundhati, wife of Sage Vasishta. Among the seven wives of seven sages, Arundhati is the foremost. Hence her blessings with the blessings of all others are sought.

The Bridegroom and Bride perform some concluding rituals and they offer prostration to the sacred fire, the Gods and all elders and seek their blessings.


Marrige is a Vedic tradition. Many mantras we recite in Marriage ceremony are from Vedasamhitas.

Related entries found !

Word Sanskrit IAST In General Veda Purana
Gandharva Vivaha Marrige by mutual consent and love but not with religious rites and parents consent. Dushyantha and Damayanthi marriage in the forest is one such.Read More
Rakshasa vivaha Rakshasa vivaha is a forceful abduction of the spouse, so not an admissible way of marriage. But... Read More