HINDU ENCYCLOPEDIA

सनातन धर्म भूमिका

Meaning of "Samaveda"

Word

Samaveda

Sanskrit

सामवेद

IAST

sāmaveda

In General

Sama Veda is in two forms the text of the Mantras that are chanted (Samayoni Mantra) and text of the Mantra that are used for singing (samagana). The chanting mantras are called Archika and they are divided into Purvarchika and Uttarachika according to Kauthuma Shakha. The usual Samaveda text has 1875 mantras and they are called, samayoni mantras. Most of the mantras are a repetition of Rig Veda mantras and Rishis are quoted as same. There are around 100 unique mantras in Samaveda which are not found in any other Vedas. The text of Sama gana mantra is obtain by adding additional syllable like ha, hu, etc. to each yoni mantra.

Saman is intoned musically according to certain rules. The classical Indian music based on seven notes (sapthasvara) has its origin in Sama Veda. Once Sama veda was the most popular Veda; the great grammarian Patanjali refers to a thousand sakhas or recession of Samaveda during his period, but what is left today is three. recession, namely: Kuthuma, Ranayana and Jaimini. There is no difference in text of Kuthuma and Ranayana recession, but there are difference in svara. Bhakti, the devotion to Devas dominate in Samaveda; Agni, Indra, Soma are propitiated by musical chanting of the mantra and devotion.

Veda

Kauthuma Shakha is known more prominently. The Samaveda- Samhita of Kauthumas, consists of two parts - the Purvarcika, and the Uttararcika. First part, the Purvarchika consist of four sections and a total of 650 verses:

1. Agneya - 114 verses for Agni

2. Aindra - 352 verses for Indra

3. Pavamana - 119 verses for Soma Pavamana

4. Aranya - 55 verses for Indra, Agni, Soma etc. (And Mahanamni Mantras -10)

The Uttararcika, the second part of the Samaveda-Samhita, consists of a total number of 1225 verses. So the total number of verses in the Samaveda-Samhit is 1875. Amongst these 1771 Verses are from the Rigveda Only 99 verses of this Samhita are not found in the Rigveda- Samhita and thus are generally regarded to be of Samveda itself.

Chandogya U. , Kena U. are the most important U. from S.V.

Purana

Sama Veda is praised in Bhagavad Gita as, “vedanam samavedosmi ”(10.22); meaning: among Veda I am Sama Veda. During Sri Krishna period Sama Veda might be the popular Veda for common man.

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Word Sanskrit IAST In General Veda Purana